樹脂改性的趨勢如何?

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所屬分類:高分子文章

目前,對各種樹脂進行改性是塑料工業發展的一種趨勢,通過共聚反應、接枝反應、交聯反應、共混等改性方法,可以拓寬樹脂的特性,降低成本,提高產品的附加值。近年來涌現了一批具有世界先進水平的改性材料,下面選取較典型的幾種材料,對其基本性能做知識性介紹。

一、納米復合材料

namicailiaoxueshijinnianlaixingqibingshoudaopubianguanzhudexindekexuelingyu,gaixuekededanshenghefazhankaipilerenmenrenshiziran、gaizaozirandexintujing。jiusuliaogongyeeryan,namifuhesuliaoshizhijiangnamilizitianchongdaojuhewuzhong,keyidedaozonghexingnengyouyidejuhewujinamifuhecailiao。

muqianyingyongfanweijiaoguangdeshiwujinamilizitianchonggaixingjuhewu。namilizishilijingzai 1~100nmdeyuanzituanzuhenamiweili。namilizijuyouxuduohongguanlizisuobujubeideyouyidewulihuaxuexingneng,yijuhewuweijitidejuhewu/wujinamilizifuhecailiaozonghelewuji、gaofenzihenamicailiaodeyoudian,juyoulianghaodejixie、guang、dian、cidengtexing,kexingchengzhongyaodeduogongnengcailiao。caiyongnamijishuduijuhewujinxinggaixingyiyichengweicailiaokexuedeyanjiuqianyan。

namilizidezhuyaotexingzaiyubiaomianxiaoyinghexiaochicunxiaoying。

biaomianxiaoying:suizhuweilichicundejianxiao,weilizhongbiaomianyuanziyuzongyuanzishuzhibi(bibiaomianji)jianghuizengjia,biaomianjiyejiuyueda,congeryinqicailiaoxingnengdebianhua,zhejiushinamilizidebiaomianxiaoying。

xiaochicunxiaoying:dangnamilizidechicunjiangdaowulitezhengchangduxiangdanghuogengxiaoshi,zhouqixingdebianjietiaojianjiangbeipohuai, cixing、neiya、guangxishou、rezu、huaxuehuoxing、cuihuaxingjirongdiandengfashenglehendadebianhua,zhejiushinamicailiaodexiaochicunxiaoying,youchengweitijixiaoying。

youyushangshuqiangdadebibiaomianjiliangzihuaxiaoying,lizijianhenrongyituanju,erqieyidantuanjucaiyongtongchangdejixiejiaobanshouduanyehennanzaijiangqidakai、fensan,zheyangbudannamicailiaobenshendexingnengdebudaozhengchangfahui,huanhuiyingxiangfuhecailiaodezonghexingneng。yaojiejuezheyiwenti,jiubixuduinamilizibiaomianjinxingchuli,yigaishanlizidefensanxinghechijiuxing。tongchangduinamicailiaochulidefangfayoubiaomianfugaifa、jixiehuaxuefa、waimocenggaixingfa、biaomianjiezhifa、gaonengchulifa、chendianfa、jihuafadeng。yishangfangfazhong,zuijiandanhezuichangyongdefangfashitianjiabiaomiangaixingji,jifensanji、oulianjideng。

namiliziyujuhewudefuhefangfazhuyaoyouyixiajizhong:gonghunfa、cengchafa(qianrufa)、rongjiao-ningjiaofa、lizijiaohuanfa、namilizitianchongfa、lbmojishujiweifanyingqifadeng。namifuhecailiaodezhibeifangfashihuodegaoxingneng、gaogongnengfuhecailiaodeguanjianjishu。ruduiyixingchengjiaotihuoyizhidenamilizidewujiwukecaiyongnamilizizhijiefensanfa;duibuyihuodenamilizide,yiyanghua、yituanjudekecaiyonglizijiaohuanfa、weifanyingqifa;cengzhuangwujiwukecaiyongchacengfa;lbmojishukezhibeiyouxudewuji、youjijiaotimodeng。

changyongdezhibeinamifuhecailiaodewujiliziyoutansuangai、tansuanmei、tansuanbei、sanyanghuaerlv、eryanghuatan、tanhei、niantu、pengruntu、mengtuotu、huashifen、jinshufendeng。

namifuhesuliaozhuyaotexingyou:

(1)hanyoushaoliang(3%~5 %zhiliangfenshu)dewujinamicailiaodefuhecailiaobichangguijuhewujifuhecailiaoqiangdu、gangdu、renxinghezugexingjunyoutigao;

(2)namifuhecailiaobichangguijuhewujifuhecailiaodenairexing、chicunwendingxinghao;

(3)erweifangxiangdedaolianghaodezengqiangzuoyong;

(4)nenghuodegongnengtexing。liruguangxuexingneng、kangjunxingneng、daodianxingneng、cixing、jiagongxingneng。

yingyongshili:

2%demengtuotu/pa6namifuhebomodetouguanglvbichunpa6da3bei;5%desic/ ldpe namifuhecailiao,quekouchongjiqiangduda55.7kj/ m,shildpede2bei;shenchanglvwei625 % ,shildpede5bei。jizengjialeqiangdu,youzengjialerenxing,jiejuelechangguijuhewujifuhecailiaonengzengqiangerbunengzengrendequexian;namishimotianchongdaojuhewuzhong,keyishisuliaodianzulvcong1016 ω· cmxiajiangdao0~10ω·cm,kezhizuodizudaoti、fangjingdianbaozhuang、dianrechuanganqideng;namiwujikangjunjitianchongdaojuhewuzhong,budanjuyouneizaidekangjunxing,keshasihuoyizhixijunfanzhi,erqieshajunlv、kangjunshixiaoxing、fensanxing、nailaohuaxingbiputongtianchongkangjunsuliaoqiangdeduo。shimianshangchuxiandenamidianbingxiangneidan、chouti、tuojia、menfengtiaodengjiushiyili。jiankangxinglvsejiadianyingyunersheng。

zaishipinbaozhuanghenongyongbomoshangdeyingyong:

塑料包裝薄膜中添加0.1%~0.5%的納米TiO2,與添加紫外線吸收劑的保鮮膜相比,不僅從外表能看清內裝的食品,透明度高,而且使怕光的食品長期不變質,能有效吸收紫外線;納米TiO2農用薄膜,由于TiO2納米粒子耐各種波長的吸收帶有寬化和藍移現象,這種納米農膜具有很強的耐用久性和透明性,比普通農膜壽命更長,溫室效應更好。

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